Across the globe, the lifestyle of the people is increasingly disposed to urban trends and that too at a fast pace.This change has in some or the other way led to an upsurge in lifestyle diseases- hypertension, diabetes, cholesterol, cardiac issues, etc. Increasing stress levels, like strained archers and that too without losing aim, sharply shoot up the blood pressure levels, thus, leading cardiac ailments. In many instances the situation gets so worst that the patient is left with no other option , but to go for heart transplantation surgery. According to a survey, it is estimated that there are approximately 50,000 candidates for transplanting surgery but the number of available donors is just 5000! The situation has annoyed the medical science and researchers are constantly trying their best to find a potent solution to this worriment.
A breakthrough in this direction has been made by the brilliant research team of Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT). The team have succeeded in culturing heart cells on recombinant analogs of spidroin meshes, r-spidroin, therefore, proving r-spidroin a consequential substrate for cardiac tissue regeneration. Spidroin is a protein which forms the construction material for spider web. Recombinant analogs of spidroin have been proved as a potent substrate in tissue engineering.
The researchers from MIPT synthesized two recombinant analogs of spidroins- rS1/9 and r-S2/12. the genes encoding rS1/9 (source: Nephila clevipes ) and r-S2/12 (source: Nephila madagascareinsis ) were cloned in the yeast Sacchromyces cerevisiae . The recombinant spidroins as well as natural silk from Bombyx mori cocoons were electrospun ( a process that uses an electrical discharge to extract a very fine, of nano and micro scale, fibres from a liquid). Cardiac cells from neonatal Wistar rats were isolated and cultured on a suitable culture medium. The primary culture cells tested for their co-ordinated contraction activity. These cells were then cultured on r-spidroin fiber meshes and their cohesion properties to the fiber meshes were observed. The cells successfully adhered and grew on the recombinant protein meshes nd also showed unified contractile activity.
This research finding has, thus, lit up a ray of hope in medical science and have taken it to a step closer towards in-vitro cardiac tissue regeneration.